Saturday, April 16, 2016

चार्वाकदर्शन के तत्व-सिद्धांत की वर्तमान प्रासंगिकता

(Relevance of Substance Theory of Charvaka in Present Times)
डॉ. देशराज सिरसवाल 


भारतीय चिन्तन परम्परा में पंच-महाभूत का बहुत महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है. भारतीय प्राचीन ग्रन्थों से लेकर अब तक विश्व की सरंचना सम्बन्धी सिद्धांतों में पंच-महाभूत सबसे स्वीकार्य सिद्धांत माना जाता रहा है. ये पांच तत्व हैं: पृथ्वी, जल, वायु, अग्नि और आकाश.  परन्तु चार्वाक जैसे दार्शनिक और आर्यभट्ट (पांचवीं शताब्दी) जैसे विज्ञानी यह कहते आ रहे हैं की तत्व पांच नहीं, चार हैं. इन लोगों ने आकाश को स्वतंत्र तत्व के रूप में स्वीकर नहीं किया. चार्वाक का यह भी विचार रहा है की सारा भौतिक व प्राक्रतिक परिदृश्य न किसी ने रचा है, न इसका कोई उद्देश्य है, प्रक्रति में परिवर्तन, विकास, रुपनान्तरण आदि इसकी अपनी प्रकिया है जो तब भी लाखों करोड़ों वर्षों से हो रहा था और आज भी विभिन्न रूपों में हो रहा है. पंच-तत्व के सिद्धांत को मानने वालों का विचार है की इन पांच तत्वों से जब शारीर बनता है तब आत्मा बाहर से प्रविष्ट होती है जबकि चार तत्व को मानने वाले चार्वाक का कथन है की इन चरों तत्वों के विशेष रूप में परस्पर मेल से ही चैतन्य (चेतना ) की उत्पत्ति होती है, आत्मा कहीं बाहर से नहीं आती- भूतेभ्य: चैतन्यम.आज विज्ञानं बहुत आगे बढ़ गया है और चार्वाक उसके अनुसार नये तत्वों की बात करते हैं. वास्तविकता तो यह है की जिन्हें हम तत्व कह रहे हैं वे तत्व न होकर यौगिक या मिश्रण हैं.  तत्व वह होता है जिसमें एक तरह कर परमाणु रहते हैं और जिसे सरलतम पदार्थ के रूप में विभाजित नहीं किया जा सकता. चार्वाक प्रकृति के जड़ रूप से ही, भौतिक तत्वों से चैतन्य की उत्पत्ति को मानता है. जैसे किनव, मधु और शर्करा आदि के मिलने से मादकता उत्पन्न होती है  उसी प्रकार शरीर में चैतन्य की उत्त्पति होती है. जब भौतिक तत्वों का तालमेल बिगड़ जाता है तो चैतन्य भी खत्म हो जाता है- सदा के लिए, सर्वदा के लिए – भस्मीभूतस्य देहस्य पुनरागमन कुत:.चार्वाक का कहना है की चैतन्य आत्मा काआकस्मिक गुण नहीं बल्कि मौलिक गुण है और चैतन्ययुक्त शरीर ही आत्मा है . यद्यपि आज चार्वाक के चार तत्व भी आदर्शवादियों के पांच तत्वों की तरह ही रद्द हो चुके हैं तथापि उनकी स्थिति दूसरी है. उन्होंने चार तत्वों को प्रकृति के प्रतिनिधि कह कर इन से चेतना की उत्पत्ति मानी है, प्रकृति एकतत्ववाद का उनका सिद्धांत आज विज्ञानसम्मत सिद्धांत है, भले ही उन की तत्वों की बात तकनीकी रूप में सही न हो. उनके लिए चार तत्वों को मानना न अनिवार्य है और न ही उसे मानने के लिए कोई ईश्वरीय आदेश है क्योंकि तत्व उनके लिए प्रकृति के प्रतिनिधि मात्र हैं, जो तब यदि चार थे तो आज 118 हैं. इससे उन्हें कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता जबकि अन्य दर्शनों के लिए के लिए स्वीकार करना दुरूह है. अत: हम कह सकते हैं की चार्वाक का दर्शन अनात्मवादी, प्रत्यक्षवादी और भौतिकवादी है. अत: इस शोध-पत्र का मुख्य विष्ण पंच-महाभूतों की अवधारणा की चार्वाक के सन्दर्भ में समीक्षा करना है और चार्वाक दर्शन की आज की प्रासंगिकता को देखना है.
Note: This paper presented in One-Day National Seminar-cum-Panel Discussion on "Science of Panch-Mahabhoots and Consciousness" at S.D. College (Lahore) Ambala Cantt. Haryana held on 16th April, 2016.

Friday, March 4, 2016

Essays on Positive Philosophy (New E-book)



Released on 23rd March,2016
You can see the book on the given below link and also see previous published books:
http://www.amazon.in/s/ref=dp_byline_sr_ebooks_1?ie=UTF8&text=DESH+RAJ+SIRSWAL&search-alias=digital-text&field-author=DESH+RAJ+SIRSWAL&sort=relevancerank

Sunday, January 3, 2016

Philosophy of Sufism and Islam


Abstract
In the course of human history, man is struck by a strange phenomenon. The living beings are born, they grow for some time and then they died. Death is perhaps the strongest, and still the common most phenomenon man has to come across. He has also tried to explain the phenomenon in his own way. One such explanation is that although the living beings (particularly human being) looks as one it (or he) consists of two elements, the material body and the other consisting what we may call the spirit, soul, self, or mind. What we call death is the separation of these two. Both these elements exist (forever) in their own right. This is at the back of Cartesian or Mimanmsa dualism. But unless they come together they do not shape what we call an individual. All religions and philosophies took initiatives to characterize this individualism. Here we will discuss the standpoint of Sufism. It is a sect of Islam but prominent in religious sects. From the philosophical standpoint the sufi sect leans towards the mystic tradition. According to Gazzzali , the term sufi implies a man’s remaining at peace with the world, in mediation upon God. In some ways the Sufi conception of the passing away (fana) of individual self in Universal Being is almost Upanishadic. But fana is not the same as nirvana, though both terms imply the passing away of individuality. There are seven stages to the ultimate goal: repentance, abstinence, renunciation, poverty, patience, trust in God and finally satisfaction. Three independent streams of thoughts fed the river of Sufism and determined its content and character: First, Islam brought with it some of the asceticism of the desert, and aversion to the life of urban and settled luxury. Second, Pythagorean Hellenism and Alexandrian Gnosticism, which had permanently Judaism and Christianity, had dominated the Near East for a thousand years before the advent of Islam. When the masses of the Near East and North Africa converted to Islam, it was natural that Gnostic ideas and metaphors were brought in with their spiritual baggage. Third, being the dominant religion of most of the provinces of Asia acquired by Islam, Buddhism was soon to exercise its influence. Henceforth, the three streams were one and ran like a mighty river. Sufism originated from Islam but it also gets effects from Platonism, Christianity, Mystic tenancies of Hinduism and Buddhism.  That’s why sometimes we find Sufism different from Islam but it never go far away from Islam. We can say that the Sufis are example of pure spiritual discipline which require a sense of dedication and humanity to get the ultimate goal of life i.e. self-realisation. So the major objective of this paper is to disuses the major components of Sufism and sees its relation with Islam in harmonious way.

Note:
To be presented at 90th Session of Indian Philosophical Congress to be held at Bodh-Gaya on 1-4 February, 2016. 


Thursday, December 31, 2015

MY ACADEMIC REPORT- 2015


Dear Scholars/Friends,
I am submitting my academic report for the year 2015 as an regular practice every year. This helps me to evaluate my academic contribution per year and motivate me to do more………..
Papers Published: 05
§  “The Philosopher King: An Indian Point of View” in Sucharitha: A Journal of Philosophy and Religion, Volume 03, Issue 01, 2015, pp.12-19.  (ISSN: 2319-4235).a
§  Positive Philosophy, Innovative Method and Present Education System” in Intellection: A Bi-annual Interdisciplinary Research Journal, Vol.III, No.II, July- December 2015, pp.01-13 (ISSN:2319-8192).
§  “Place of Logic in Indian Philosophy” in Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume V, No. 02 , September, 2015, pp.39-49 (ISSN: 2249-8389).
§  “Positive Philosophy of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati” in Darshan Jyoti: Refereed Annual Philosophical Research Journal, Year 05, No.01, September, 2015-August-2016, pp. 124-130 (ISSN: 2249-1196).
§  “Public Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration” in The Religious-Philosophical Dimensions edited by Merina Islam, CPPIS, Pehowa in 2015, pp. 109-122 (ISBN: 978-81-922377-5-6).
Papers Presented: 04
·      “Crime against Dalits and Indigenous Peoples as an International Human Rights Issue” in One-Day National Seminar on "Human rights for the marginalized groups: Understanding & Rethinking Strategies" held on February 5, 2015 at P.G. Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.
·      “Dr. B.R.Ambedkar’s Contribution in the Democratic Rights Struggle” in National Seminar on Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s Views on Social Justice, Caste based Discrimination and Dalit Identity held on March 27-28, 2015 at Dr. Ambedkar Centre of Socio-Economic Studies for the Weaker Sections of Society and CSSEIP, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
·      “Philosophy, Creativity and Human Relations”  in  60th Annual Session of All India Philosophy Association held on  3rd – 5th June 2015 at School of Philosophy & Culture, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu & Kashmir.
·      “The Role of Religious and Spiritual Values in Shaping Humanity ( A Study of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s Religious Philosophy) in 3rd International Dharma-Dhamma Conference on Harmony of Religions: Welfare of Humankind, held on 24-26 October, 2015 at Indore (MP).
Participations:02
o   RUSA Sponsored Seven Days Training Workshop on “Research Methodology: Emerging Trends”  held on November 28 to 04 December, 2015 at P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-42, Chandigarh.
o   Three-Day Philosophy Teachers' Meet of North-Western Zone sponsored by ICPR, New Delhi, Department of Guru Nanak Studies, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar on 29th to 31st Dec. 2015
Citation Received: 01
·      Dr. Laxmikant Sharma (2015)  “Dr. Ambedkar’s Vision on Indian Farming” in International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, Volume No. 6 (2015), Issue No. 01 (January) (ISSN 0976-2183), p.27. (Sirswal Desh Raj(2010): Dr. Ambedkar's Views on Humanism and Buddhism" in Dr. R. B. Langayan(ed.) Relevance of Thoughts of Dr. Ambedkar in Present Times, Vishal Kaushik Printers, Delhi. ISBN-978-81-89495-41-1.) Link: http://ijrcm.org.in/ download.php? name= ijrcm -1-IJRCM-1_vol-6_2015_issue-01-art-06.pdf&path=uploaddata/ijrcm-1-IJRCM-1_vol-6_2015_issue-01-art-06.pdf
Online Article: 05
·      69वें भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता दिवस-2015 की हार्दिक शुभकामनायें
·      भारत रत्न डॉ भीमराव अम्बेडकर जी के जन्मदिवस पर विशेष-2015
·      अंतर्राष्ट्रीय महिला दिवस पर हार्दिक बधाई
·      गांधी बनाम गोडसे बनाम लोकतंत्र
The above short articles available at:
http://msesaim.wordpress.com/
Programme Organised:03
  • ICPR Sponsored Periodical Lectures at Department of Philosophy in academic collaboration with Department of Hindi, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh held on 11-02- 2015.
·      “World Philosophy Day-2015” at Departments of Philosophy & Hindi, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh held on 19-11-2015.
·      An Online National Level Essay Competition for Students on the theme “Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: The Maker of Modern India” at Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), MSES (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra) held on 19-11-2015 (World Philosophy Day).
Membership: 01
·      Life-Member, All India Philosophy Association (Akhil Bhartiya Darshan Parishad): 03/06/2015.
Online Pages Developed: 01
·      Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: The Maker of Modern India (Celebrating 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar):  http://drambedkar125.wordpress.com
Posters: 03
·      Happy Teachers’ Day 2015 -The Positive Philosophy Society
·      Happy Teachers’ Day- CPPIS, Pehowa
·      Word Philosophy Day-2015
Journal Issues:03
·      Lokayata Vol.IV,No.01 (March  2015) edited by Desh Raj Sirswal
·      Lokayata Vol.IV,No.02 (Sept  2015) edited by Desh Raj Sirswal
·      Milestone Education Review Year 06, No. 01 edited by Desh Raj Sirswal
Videos uploaded: 05
·      Birth Anniversary Celebration of Savitribai Phule: Jan 07, 2015
·      Academic  Programmes (2010-2014) Department of Philosophy, PGGCG-11, Chd: Jan 08,2015
·      Student Activities (2010-2014) Department of Philosophy, PGGCG-11, Chandigarh: Jan 09,2015
·      Sweet Memories of Milestone Education Society (2006-2011): Jan 14,2015
·      Nomination of Prof. Sohan Raj Tater for “Padam Shri Award”: Jan 17,2015
Videos can be watch at:
https://www.youtube.com/user/cppismedia                                            
Additional Work:
In addition to the abovesaid, I submitted several reports of the programmes, prepared new online profiles regular updated all our philosophy pages including Philosophy News in India, The Positive Philosophy, Indian Psychology, Interdisciplinary Studies, Scribd.com, Research Gate, Academia.edu, Issuu.com etc.  Some assignments are pending for the next year:
·      Essay in Positive Philosophy (Book)
·      Dr. B.R.Ambedkar :The Maker of Modern India (Edited Book)
·      Two issues of Milestone Education Review will be on Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
·      Philosophy of Sufism and Islam (Research Paper)


Hope your blessings, motivation and good wishes guide me in my academic career and social life in future also.
Thanks for being with me.
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal

December 31, 2015